AS Things are now come to that Issue, that we enjoy some Foretastes of that precious Liberty, whereof we have long had but the empty Name, and Men may freely speak those Sentiments, which but very lately would have been peril even in our secret Thoughts, could the Rigour of Laws and the Terrors of Power have reached them there; you’ll allow the few following Lines a Place in your Paper.
I have been a Spectator of what has happened here of late, tho’ I could not be an unconcerned one, as I love my Country; but as I have no Party Rage, and have taken no Side, I can less suspected of Parfidity or Prejudice. Tho’ I am as remote from Enthusiasm as any Man, yet I am not void of Religion, but love to spend some leisure Hours now and then, in contemplating the Divine Wisdom, Power and Goodness, display’d in the wonderful Methods and Events of God’s Providence: The Occurences of some Weeks past have furnished more than ordinary Number and Variety of Speculations of this sort.
When I see a Prince born to Rule, and endowed with every Quality that can fit him for it, a Prince of whom it may be said more truly than of Titus Vespasian, that he is the Delight of Mankind, the Admiration of all that know him, whom to see, is to love, his Presence and Manner commanding Reverence, softening Hearts, conquering Prejudices, and turning the Spite of his Enemies into Respect and the warmest Affection. A Prince of our own Blood, being the direct lineal Descendent of the ancient Race of our Scots Kings, which for 2000 Years and more had governed a free and happy People. A Prince who might have lived in Ease and Safety, and Splendour abroad, without running Hazards on a personal Account. When I see this Prince listening to the Groans of his oppressed unhappy People, and exposing his sacred Person for their Respect, animated more by Zeal to rescue his Country from Ruin, than to recover the just Rights of his Family. When I see this Prince not trusting to the Arm of Flesh, but placing his Confidence (next under God, who can confound worldly Power and Policy) in the Justice of his Cause, and the Affections of his People, accompanied with a very small Retinue, being just seven of his own faithful Friends, embarking in a small vessel, committing himself to the Mercy of Winds and Seas, and to the greater Danger of many armed Enemies, which lay in his Way. When I see him, through so many Difficulties, landing in a remote Corner of his Country, ill furnished with Accomodations fit for his Birth and Merit; when I find the ﬁrst News with which he was entertained after his Arrival, was of a great Price set on his innocent Head, to encourage Ruffians to take away his Life; and of a disciplined Army of 4000 Men, to hinder the Aquisition of his undoubted Right; when, in spite of so many Discouragements and Incumberances, I see a little one become a thousand, great things issuing from small Beginnings; a gallant resolute Army of faithful Subjects brought together in a short Time, the Enemies Forces struck with Terror, fleeing while none pursued, their General Officers taking Shelter in Castles, and the Officers of State running into England for a whiles Safety. When I see this banished, proscribed, darling Prince march on Foot above an hundred and fifty Miles, from a distant Part of his Dominions, to the Capital of this ancient Kingdom, without Effusion of Blood, without striking a Blow, or any ill Accident happening, and in six Weeks from his landing, lodged in the Palace of his Ancestors, wherein none of his Family had been for 63 Years before, and saluted on his Arrival there, by the loudest Acclamations and Shouts of the People, in Raptures of Joy and Admiration. When I take a Review of all this amazing Scene, what can I conclude, but that this Prince is the Care of Heaven, as well as the Darling of his People. Can any be so stupid, as not to discern the Finger of GOD in these great Transactions? Or can any one doubt, but the same good Providence, which has so remarkably interposed in his Behalf, can and will continue to protect and prosper him, to confound the Policy and Power of his Enemies, and make all Opposition fall before him.
Gentlemen, you are just now to engage with a Parcel of Rabble, a Parcel of Brutes, being a small Number of Scots Highlanders. You can expect no Booty from such a poor despicable Pack. I have Authority to declare, That you shall have eight full Hours Liberty to plunder and pillage the City of Edinburgh, Leith, and Suburbs, (the Places which harboured and succoured them) at your Discretion, with Impunity.
The Grants of Glenmoriston joined the Prince’s Army, Sept. 20. That Morning his Royal Highness the Prince put himself at the Head of the Army at Duddingston, and presenting his Sword, said, My Friends, I have flung away the Scabbard. This was answered with a chearful Huzza. The Army marched and drew up on Carberry-Hill, where we learned that General Cope had fallen down to the low Country, East of Prestonpans. This directed our March along the Brow of the Hill, till we descried the Enemy, upon which the Highlanders gave a Shout by Way of Defiance, expressing such Eagerness to run down upon them, that nothing less than Authority could restrain them from coming to Action directly.
Some Gentlemen went out to observe their Camp and reconnoitre the Ground, while the Army advanced, till it came opposite to and at half a Mile’s Distance from the Enemy. These Gentlemen returning, informed, that they had got into a Fastness, having a very broad and deep Ditch in Front, the Town of Preston on the Right, some Houses and a small Morass on the Left, and on the Frith of Forth on the Rear. This made it impracticable to attack them in Front but at the greatest Risk.
That Evening Mr. Cope discharged several Cannon at us. A Gentleman, who had seen their Army that Day advised us, ‘That they were above 4000 strong, besides Volunteers, Seceders, &c. from Edinburgh, and several Gentlemen at the Head of their Tenants; that General Hamilton’s Dragoons stood on their Right, Colonel Gardner’s on the Left; the Regiments abroad and at home formed the Centre, and that they were all in top Spirits.’
Both Armies lay upon their Arms all Night. Mr. Cope’s threw off several Coehorns, to let us understand they were alert, and had large Fires at several Places round their Camp. Our Men continued very silent, not one Word was heard.
About three in the Morning of Saturday the 21st we got off the Ground and marched Eastward; then turning North, formed a Line in order to prevent the Enemy’s Retreat through the East Country, while another Body of Men were posted to provide against their stealing a March upon us towards Edinburgh.
The Disposition being made, his Royal Highness, the Prince, adressed his Army in these Words, ‘Follow me, Gentlemen, by the Assistance of God I will this Day make you a free and happy People. We marched cheerfully on and engaged the Enemy. The Right Wing was led on by his Grace the Duke of Perth Lieutenant-General, and consisted of the Regiments of Clanronald, Keppoch, Glengarry and Glencoe. The Left, by the Right Honourable Lord George Murray Lieutenant-General, consisting of the Battalions of Camerons, commanded by Lochyel; the Stuarts of Appin, by Ardshiell; one Body of the MacGregors, with Glencairneg, and the rest of the Macgregors with the Duke of Perth’s men, under Major James Drummond. The Enemy’s artillery plaid furiously upon our left, especially on Lochyel’s battalions; yet only one private man was killed, and a Gentleman wounded: their cannon also raked our Right Wing, but did no great Execution. Their Cannon were followed by a very regulat Fire of the Dragoons on Right and Left, and this again by close Platoons of all their Infantry, which our Men received with Intrepidity and an Huzza; nor did we return the Enemy’s Fire, till we approached them so near as that the Colfin of our Shot might set their Whiskers on Fire. The Highlanders then drew their Swords, and carried all before them like a Torrent; killing or making Prisoners every Officer of the Infantry, except Major Mosman, and either one or two more, which escaped with their General.’
The Prince’s Army found 4000l. Sterling in General Cope’s Military Chest.
The Signal having been given to form and attack, nothing could parallel the Celerity and Dextrousness with which the Highlanders performed that Motion, except the Courage and Ardour with which they afterwards fought, and pulling off their Bonnets, looking up to Heaven, made a short Prayer, and run forward. They received a very full Fire from Right to Left of the Enemy, which killed severals; but advancing up, they discharged and threw down their Muskets, and drawing their broad Swords, gave a most frightful and hideous Shout, rushing most furiously upon the Enemy, so that in seven or eight Minutes, both Horse and Foot were totally routed and drove from the Field of Battle; though it must be owned, that the Enemy fought very gallantly, but they could not withstand the Impetuosity, or rather Fury of the Highlanders, and were forced to run when they could no longer resist.
Some Dragoons formed soon after on a neighbouring Eminence, but observing our Men marching to attack them, fled to Dalkeith, others took Shelter in the neighbouring Villages, others again got to Leith; some Dragoons and Foot fled into Edinburgh, who discharged their load Pistols at People in the Street.
As the second Line, which was commanded by the Lord Nairn, and consisted of the Athole Men, Strowan’s People, the Maclachlans, &c. could not come up to have a Share of the Honour; and the Nobility, Gentry, &c. stood on Horseback, as a Reserve, it may in Justice be said, That 2000 Highland foot, unsupported by Horse, and charged in Front and Flank with Artillery and small Arms, routed a regular Army of above 4000 Horse and Foot in an open Plain, and obtained a most signal and complete Victory with a very inconsiderable Loss.
We had killed on the Spot in this Battle of Gladsmuir, near Seton House,
Capt. Robert Stuart, of Ardsheill’s battalion;
Capt. Archibald Macdonald, of Keppoch’s;
Lieut. Allan Cameron of Lindevra, and Ensign James Cameron, both of Lochiel’s Regiment.
Capt. James Drummond, alias Macgregor, mortally wounded, of the Duke of Perth’s regiment.
And about 30 private men, and 70 or 80 wounded.
On the other hand, the enemy had killed,
|Col. Gardner,||Ensign Forbes.|
|Capt. John Stuart of Phisgil,||PRISONERS.|
|Capt. Rogers,||Of Guise’s Regiment.|
|Capt. Bishop,||Capt. Pointz,|
|Lieut. Cuming,||Capt. Monro,|
|Lieut. Patton,||Capt. Lieut. Macnab,|
|Ensign Wakeman,||Capt. Stewart,|
|Ensign Irvine,||Lieut. Reed,|
|Lord John Murray’s Regiment||Ensign Grant,|
|Capt. Sir Peter Murray||Ensign Ross,|
|Lieut. James Farquharson||Ensign Maclaggan.|
|Ensign Allan Campbell.||Of Lascelle’s Regiment.|
|Of Lee’s Regiment.||Major Severn,|
|Col. Peter Halket,||Capt. Barlow,|
|Capt. Basil Cochran,||Capt. Adam Drummond,|
|Capt. Chapman||Capt. Forrester,|
|Capt. Tatton,||Capt. Anderson,|
|Lieut. Sandilands,||Capt. Corbet,|
|Lieut. Drummond,||Capt. Collier,|
|Lieut. Kennedy,||Lieut. Swinie,|
|Lieut. Hewitson,||Lieut. Johnston,|
|Ensign Hardwick,||Lieut. Carrick,|
|Ensign Archer,||Lieut. Dundass,|
|Ensign Dumbar,||Lieut. Herring,|
|Mr. Wilson as Quartermaster,||Ensign Stone,|
|Dr. Young,||Ensign Cox,|
|Of Murray’s Regiment.||Ensign Bell,|
|Lieut. Col. Clayton,||Ensign Gordon,|
|Major Talbot,||Ensign Goulton,|
|Capt. Reid,||Dr. Drummond,|
|Capt. John Cochran,||Of Hamilton’s Dragoons.|
|Capt. Scot.||Col. Wright,|
|Capt. Thomas Lesly,||Major Bowles,|
|Capt. Blackes,||Cornet Jacob,|
|Lieut. Thomas Hay,||Cornet Nash,|
|Lieut. Disney,||Dr. Trotter.|
|Lieut. Wale,||Of Gardner’s Dragoons.|
|Lieut. Wry,||Col. Whitney,|
|Lieut. Simms,||Lieut. Grafton,|
|Ensign Sutherland,||Cornet Burroughs,|
|Ensign Lucey,||Cornet Alcock,|
|Ensign Haldane,||Quartermaster West,|
|Ensign Binnie,||Col. Whiteford, Volunteer,|
|Ensign L’Estrange,||Major Griffith Master-Gunner of Edinburgh Castle.|
|Earl of Loudoun’s Regiment.||In all 84 Officers, &c.|
|Capt. Mackay,||Many of the above wounded.|
‘Tis computed about 500 of the Enemy were killed; and that 900 are wounded, and that we have taken about 1400 Prisoners. All their Cannon, Mortars, several Colours, Standards, abundance of Horses and Arms were taken. As was all their Baggage, Equipage, &c.
The Prince, as soon as Victory declared for him, mounted his Horse, and put a Stop to the Slaughter; and finding no Surgeons amongst the Enemy, dispatched an Officer to Edinburgh, with Orders to bring all the Surgeons to attend; which was accordingly done.
The Victorious PRINCE lay that Night at the House of Pinkie, and returned Yesternight to Holy-rood-house, welcomed by the loudest Acclamations of the People.
Several Serjeants and Corporals, with a vast many private Men, have entred into the Prince’s Service; so that, with the Volunteers who come in, the Clerks of the Office have no Leisure to eat, drink, or sleep, by enlistng. These Serjeants and Corporals are now beating up for Volunteers to serve Prince Charles.
A great many of the Dragoons of Hamilton and Gardner’s Regiment have also enlisted, and we hear are to be incorporated with the Prince’s Squadrons.
The poor Soldiers who were wounded at the late Battle daily die of their Wounds, both in Town and Country; and such of them as have been able to crawl to Town, are chearfully succoured by the Inhabitants.
All the Prisoners taken at the Battle of Gladsmuir, have been brought to Town, and are most humanly and civily used, agreeably to the Orders issued in that Respect. The Officers were lodged in Queensbery House, but are fine at Liberty upon Parole, not to depart from the City, nor correspond with the Garison of the Castle, &c. The Soldiers remain confined in the Church and Prisons of Canongate, &c.
Besides the List of Prisoners taken at the Battle, and published in our last, we learn, That Sir Thomas Hay of Park (in the County of Galloway) Bart. a Lieutenant in Col. Murray’s Regiment, was made Prisoner and his left Hand quite cut off, but is nevertheless in a fair Way of doing well.
And we learn that Captain Brymer of Guise’s Regiment, has died of his Wounds in the Country; that Lieutenant Cranston of Colonel Murray’s Regiment and Captain Holloway are also dead of their Wounds.
Certain it is, that never were such Strokes seen given by Sword as on the above Occasion; not only Men’s Hands and Feet were cut off, but even the Legs of Horses; and what many saw may be affirm’d for Truth, viz. ‘That a Highland Gentleman (who led up a Division) after breaking through Murray’s Regiment, fetching a Blow at a Grenadier, the poor Fellow naturally got up his Hand over Head, and not only had his Hand lop’d off, but also his Scull cut above an Inch deep, so that he expired on the Spot.’
Many Things happened that Day, as uncommon and marvellous, as the Events which preceeded and followed that Action seem portentious, and the Effect of an Influence more than human.
So that the Battle of Gladsmuir fought on the 21st of September 1745, will be classed amongst the most remarkable British Æras.
By this Battle, an innocent Gentleman’s Life was saved (a Writer of this City) who had been judged to be hanged at the Head of General Cope’s Army, on Saturday at Ten o’Clock before Noon, as a Spy. He unluckily happened, in his Way from this City to Haddingtoun, on Business, to fall in with the General’s Camp, and his Father being at the Time a Field-Officer in the Prince’s Army, he was suspected as a Reconnoiterer of theirs.
After the most strict Enquiry it now most obviously appears that only 1456 of the Highland Army engaged and foiled that commanded by Mr. Cope.
The Officers who are Prisoners, extol the Humanity of the Gentlemen who commanded the Highland Troops, and acknowledge that no Military (equal) Force, with all the Discipline and Stratagems of War yet devised, could have withstood the Resolution and Ardour of the Highlanders on this Occasion.
The Tents and other Utensils furnished by this City to the Army, were Yesterday and this Morning sent down to the Abbay; these, with the Tents taken from the Enemy at the Battle, will serve the whole Army; so that they will encamp this Night. They have also got a pretty Park of Artillery, which they are repairing and augmenting with Diligence.
Yesterday a Letter was read at the Prince’s Court, dated at London, the 17th instant, advising, That on the 9th five French Men of War, and 20 Transports with Troops aboard, sailed from the Port of Dunkirk, steering Northward.
A Letter from Capt. H––––e, dated at Canongate, Monday Night last, to his Friend at Inverness, has been intercepted; it narrates, ‘That while he was along with the two Regiments of Dragoons at Corstorphine, &c. a Serjeant had been imployed to reconnoitre the Highland Army disguised; That by means of a Friend, he had at Linlithgow, the Serjeant passed among them as a Farmer who had furnished their Army with Horses, &c. That upon the Serjeants Return, he was examined upon Oath, and deponed, That he believed the Highland Army was then 5000 strong, besides some small Out-parties; that he saw Prince Charles that Morning sitting along with the Men on the Grass, his Horse’s Bridle over his Arm; that upon an Alarm of the Dragoons advancing, he put up in his Pocket a Crust of brown Bread he had been eating, and calling to Arms, said with a loud Voice, March, my Friends, my beloved Countrymen, let us advance in the Name of the Lord! Upon which the Letter-writer has this Remark, This Charles bids fair to imitate the Royal Swede of that Name.’
A Letter from London says, ‘The Chevalier de St. George has certainly left Rome; and is said to be bound for Scotland.—And as this Court expects a Descent from Dunkirk, or some other Port in France, the Regiments of Horse of Montague Wade, and Lord Mark Ker are ordered to the Coast of Kent to ly.
His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales’s Answer to the Gentlemen who were sent Deputies from the City of Edinburgh, with a Letter from General Guist, threatning, that unless the Communication betwixt the City and Castle was opened, they would fire upon the City.
I Am equally surprised and concerned at the Barbarity of the Orders that have been signified to you from the Castle, and which those who command in it say they have received from the Elector of Hannover, at the same Time that they own they have six Weeks Provisions left. If he look’d upon you as his Subjects, he would never exact from you what he knows it is not in your Power to do. And should we, out of Compassion to you, comply with this extravagant Demand of his, he might as well summon us to quit the Town, and abandon those Advantages which Providence has granted us, by crowning the Valour of our Troops with such signal Success. I shall be heartily sorry for any Mischief that may befal the City, and shall make it my peculiar Care to indemnify you in the most ample manner. In the mean Time, I shall make full Reprisals upon the Estates of those who are now in the Castle, and even upon all who are known to be open Abettors of the German Government, if I am forced to it by the Continuance of such Inhumanities.
Holy-rood-house, Sept. 30, 1745.
We are advised that General Cope had sent down from Berwick an attested Copy of an Order he had received from London, for bringing the above Distress upon this City, not thinking proper to transmit hither the Original; and that General Guist on Receipt thereof, was absolutely tied down to intimate his Orders.
A Body of Gentlemen were last Week detach’d hence, in order to settle with the Town of Glasgow the Proportion of the publick Money, &c. payable by that City. They were kindly received by the Magistrates and Community, have amicable compromised the Matter, and highly commend the Prince’s Civility and Moderation. We hear that City is to pay down 5000l. and Tartanes and Linen for 1000l. more.
There is now forming, and pretty well advanced, a Body of Horse Life-Guards for his Royal Highness the Prince, commanded by the Right Honourable the Lord Elcho; their Uniform is Blue trimm’d with Red, and laced Waistcoats; they are to consist of four Squadrons of Gentlemen of Character.
The Prince’s Tent has been erected in the Camp near Duddingstoun, where his Royal Highness lies each Night wrapp’d up in his Highland Plaid. He takes the utmost Pleasure in reviewing his People, and is highly beloved by them.
They write from Berwick, that General Cope has his Dragoons quartered or encamped on the South-Side of the River Tweed, above Tweedmouth, and the 700 or 800 Dutch encamp on the East-Side of Tweedmouth. The People of this Town were confounded, on seeing General Cope coming riding up to us, and the Dragoons after him. The Inhabitants fell a cursing the whole Scots Nation, and would scarce condescend to let a Scotsman stay in Town. Yesterday it was surmised, that a Body of 400 Highlanders from Dunbar were advancing towards that Town; whereupon all got to Arms: But on hearing that only four Gentlemen had passed by the Garrison, they recovered their Senses.